PHP 7#

What happened to 6? It was a faied project due to the ropsed ntroduction of unicode

Most important feature#

Speed More requests a second, less memory usage

New features#

Type declarations#

Weak typed - does not require declaration of data type.

PHP 5 you were limited to class and array. It would not allow scalar types.

in PHP 7 scalar types were allowed:

  • int
  • float
  • string
  • bool

It is non-strict. ie. If you pass a string into a function requiring a float the string will be converted as best it can. Eg. “1 week” becomes 1

strict types will throw a fatal error.

php 7 also allows return type declarations:


function getTotal(float $a, float $b): int{
  return $a + $b;

In the above example a fatal error will be thrown. You have to cast to int first.

  • strict mode is per file, not in php.ini
  • Integers will be widened into floats by adding .0

Error handling#

Handling fatal errors would not invoke the error handler and would stop the script. For production servers that causes white screen of death


Spaceship operator: <=>

Checks each component individually…

2 < 1 reutrn -1
2 = 1 return 0
2 > 1 return 1

If set or, returns left operand if not null, else returns right.

$name = $firstName ?? "Guest";

//You can also stack - returns first not null

$name = $firstName ?? $MyName ?? "Guest";


Cryptographically secure sudo-random number generator - secure way of generating random data

Interface to operating systems random number generator

Usage passwords and password salts

random_bytes - return random bytes

random_int(1, 20) - return random integer

Unicode Support#

For emoji and international characters

Removed Features#