Everything Rancher does is free and open source
Rancher sells support to enterprises, all of Cloud Native Foundation is covered.
Challenges that Rancher tries to fix:
- Deploying consistently across different infrastructure
- Implement and manage access control across clusters and namespaces
- Integrating with a central authentication system
- Partitioning clusters to more efficiently use resources
- Managing multi-tenancy, mulitple dedicated and shared clusters
- Make clusters highly available
- Ensure that security policies are enforced
Kubernetes wants to maintain flexibiility it cannot do certain things like:
- tell you how to authenticate with an identity provider
- tell you how to do backups
- how to do cluster replication
We want to spend more time using that platform than working on the platform
Abstracted complex stuff away and consolidated things together and included benefits.
Kubernetes is a commodity, I don’t care where the electricity comes from as long as the lights turn on.
It is a complete container management platform.
Ketchup k3s is a light-weight utility to get from zero to KUBECONFIG on any local or remote VM. Need 512MB RAM to run all of kubernetes.
Create a VM - take note of ip and add ssh key
Using the local
k3suptool to install kubernetes on the remove
k3sup install –ip
kubeconfigto a safe place and set the env variable
Ensure port 6443 is open and run
kubectl get node -o wide
$ kubectl get pods -A NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE kube-system coredns-66f496764-lrzsq 1/1 Running 0 8m8s kube-system helm-install-traefik-hzhmd 0/1 Completed 0 8m7s kube-system svclb-traefik-qgwr9 3/3 Running 0 7m37s kube-system traefik-d869575c8-2xsb7 1/1 Running 0 7m37s
Building blocks, that can be assembled into an application:
- config maps
Everything in kubernetes is written in yaml - they are called manifests
- Smallest unit that can be deployed in kubernetes
- Consist of one or more containers always scheduled together
- Each pod has a unique ip address
- Containers in a host speak to eachother with localhost
Pods often have 1 container in it
A single unit of functionality - pods are the things that scale when you need more power
Basic Pod Spec#
apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: myapp-prod labels: app: myapp spec: containers: - name: myapp-container image: busybox command: ['sh', '-c', 'echo Hello Kubernetes! && sleep 10']
containers part is important - you tell it the name, the image to run and the command to override the default.
kubectl you can use:
kubectl apply -f pod.yaml
Unless you specifically tell kubernetes that this pod is going to run once then stop (like a bash command), kubernetes expects that it will continue running.
If it stops and kubernetes does not know why it restarts it - kubernetes will then increase to
2s before restarting then
4s and continue doubling until
10 mins. To prevent excess resource usage on the cluster. A
Delete the pod:
kubectl delete po/myapp-pod
You’re never going to create pods as there will be something else managing it
- Defined the desired scale and state of a group of pods
- A replica set will ensure there are a certain number of pods running - so if you lose a node with 4 pods on it - another 4 pods will start on other nodes.
- Kubernetes works with 2 states: actual state and desired state
Everything you do with kubernetes is telling it the desired state
- You create this
- Deployment creates Replice Set, Replica set creates pods
- Deployment is rolling - you can also roll back
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: nginx labels: app: nginx spec: replicas: 3 selector: matchLabels: app: nginx template: metadata: labels: app: nginx spec: containers: - name: nginx:1.14-alpine ports: - containerPort: 80
metadata - Everything in kubernetes has a label, many labels - key-value pairs. They are used with selectors, since pods and versions can change you tell the replicaset and the deployment what it should be managing.
Best practice is to name things that are related with the same name
kubectl create deploy nginx --image=nginx:1.17-alpine
The better way to do things instead of create yaml by hand
You can view the pod running:
$ kubectl get pods NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE nginx-767868858-5728k 1/1 Running 0 103s
$ kubectl get rs NAME DESIRED CURRENT READY AGE nginx-767868858 1 1 1 2m55s
$ kubectl get deploy NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE nginx 1/1 1 1 3m23s
If we delete that pod, kubernetes will restart it:
$ kubectl delete po/nginx-767868858-5728k pod "nginx-767868858-5728k" deleted $ kubectl get pods NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE nginx-767868858-gp96g 1/1 Running 0 18s
We can scale our deployments:
$ kubectl scale deploy/nginx --replicas=3 deployment.extensions/nginx scaled
Now we have 3 replicas:
$ kubectl get pods NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE nginx-767868858-gp96g 1/1 Running 0 96s nginx-767868858-cs9wg 1/1 Running 0 31s nginx-767868858-c79th 1/1 Running 0 31s
Image Update and Rollback Scenario#
You can also update the image of a deployment:
We are deliberately spelling this image wrong
kubectl set image deploy/nginx nginx=nginx:1.15-alpne --record
--recordmeans remember the previous state if we need to roll back
You can watch the rollout happen with:
kubectl rollout status deploy/nginx
Kubernetes launches new things before stopping old things by default
You cannot view logs for a pod that never launched
When you want to view what kubernetes sees about objects running inside it, use
$ kubectl get pods NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE nginx-767868858-gp96g 1/1 Running 0 10m nginx-767868858-cs9wg 1/1 Running 0 9m28s nginx-767868858-c79th 1/1 Running 0 9m28s nginx-fd7f5f55c-jzqzj 0/1 ImagePullBackOff 0 89s kubectl describe po/nginx-fd7f5f55c-jzqzj
Warning Failed 42s (x4 over 2m15s) kubelet, k3sup Failed to pull image "nginx:1.15-alpne": rpc error: code = Unknown desc = failed to resolve image "docker.io/library/nginx:1.15-alpne": docker.io/library/nginx:1.15-alpne not found
You can undo the deployment with:
$ kubectl rollout undo deploy/nginx deployment.extensions/nginx rolled back
Let’s change it a different way:
kubectl edit deploy/nginx
Once you change it and save, the changes are automatically applied to the cluster.
Check the rollout:
$ kubectl rollout status deploy/nginx deployment "nginx" successfully rolled out
Delete the deployment:
$ kubectl delete deploy/nginx deployment.extensions "nginx" deleted
- Creates a DNS entry and stable IP address that refers to a group of pods - a layer 4 load balancer
- clusterIP - for communication not exposed
- nodePort - used with external load balancers
On prem and you want to use the loadbalancer service type you want to use MetalLB, an in cluster resource that you give a pool of ip’s. It allocates the ip and arping that ip is on that mac. Only works when you can have multiple ip addresses to a single node - not cloud providers
Also does BGP injection.
apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: labels: app: nginx name: nginx spec: ports: - port: 80 protocol: TCP targetPort: 80 selector: app: nginx sessionAffinity: None type: ClusterIP
It does it does round robin load balancing you can set session affinity.
$ kubectl apply -f deployment.yaml deployment.apps/nginx created
Expose the service
kubectl expose deploy/nginx --type=NodePort
$ kubectl get services NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE kubernetes ClusterIP 10.43.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 131m nginx NodePort 10.43.69.11 <none> 80:31612/TCP 33s
Now just ensure that port is open on the firewall on the node and go:
you should see an nginx instance
Services are good for non-HTTP protocols as well. MQTT, database etc.
If you are dealing with HTTP exclusively however you might want to look at ingresses…
- Define how traffic outside the cluster is routed to inside the cluster
- Used to expose kubernetes services to the world
- Route traffic to internal services based on route and path
- Usually implemented by load balancer (Nginx, HAProxy)
You can use Some nodes as Layer 7 load balancer
An Ingress controller is a software based load balancer like Nginx, HAProxy, Kong, GLuu or Istio.
For example you have a microservices architecture and the following go to different places:
All of that can sit between a single ingress.
The regular clustIP service is listening on port 80:
$ kubectl get service NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE kubernetes ClusterIP 10.43.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 161m nginx ClusterIP 10.43.60.248 <none> 80/TCP 19m
More information on ingress
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1 kind: Ingress metadata: name: single-ingress annotations: nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: / spec: rules: - host: nginx.fixes.co.za http: paths: - path: / backend: serviceName: nginx servicePort: 80
kubectl get ingress
Now that host
nginx.fixes.co.za will work as long as dns points to the node and port 80 is open on the host node.
What do we have#
$ kubectl get deploy NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE nginx 3/3 3 3 53m
In front of that, a service called nginx
$ kubectl get service NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE kubernetes ClusterIP 10.43.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 3h1m nginx ClusterIP 10.43.60.248 <none> 80/TCP 39m
In front of that an ingress
NAME HOSTS ADDRESS PORTS AGE single-ingress nginx.fixes.co.za 18.104.22.168 80 6m20s
Changing the Image#
kubectl set image deploy/nginx nginx=monachus/rancher-demo:pink --record
Check the rollout
$ kubectl rollout status deploy/nginx deployment "nginx" successfully rolled out
It is still called nginx, the name of it has nothing to do with what it is running.
$ kubectl get pods NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE nginx-86774cd58-bst6h 1/1 Running 0 57s nginx-86774cd58-7twqf 1/1 Running 0 46s nginx-86774cd58-jhgn2 1/1 Running 0 44s
However this container listens on port
80 so lets edit the service
kubectl edit service/nginx
trafaek as its ingress controller by default. The container uses
/ping to get its updates.
/ping to return
Switch the image with:
kubectl set image deploy/nginx nginx=monachus/rancher-demo --record
then scale the deployment:
kubectl scale deploy/nginx --replicas=7
That is the basics of kubernetes:
- deployments that create pods
- Services and ingresses
Other things sit on the perifery of that:
- config maps
Deployments deal with stateless traffic - like HTTP.
A database is not stateless…they are important…the master is the master.
Things that matter will use a stateful set. There are also daemon sets which will launch 1 copy of the pod on every node on the cluster. For example your ingress controller on every host node.
Then there are jobs and cron jobs.
You can get the history of deployments with:
deployment.extensions/nginx REVISION CHANGE-CAUSE 1 <none> 2 kubectl set image deploy/nginx nginx=monachus/rancher-demo:pink --record=true 3 kubectl set image deploy/nginx nginx=monachus/rancher-demo --record=true
Check out the Rancher Installation docs.
Remember you can’t go from a single install to high availability.
Rancher installs by default with self signed certificates
You can connect Rancher to some backend identity providers. * Active Directory * Azure AD * Github * Ping (SAML) * Keycloak (SAML) * AD FS (SAML) * Okta (SAML) * FreeIPA (LDAP) * OpenLDAP (LDAP) * Google
Always have an admin user on Rancher incase auth is down
Full management of Kubernetes role based access control
Kubernetes RBAC is very complicated , rancher makes it easier.
Also have pod security policies (psp) which tell pods whether they can run as root, can they use host based networking and can they run in privileged mode
The package manager for kubernetes is called helm. Rather than creating a readme giving steps to deploy an application you can make it available as a chart.
You can add, remove and activate helm repos
You can’t have 2 deployments called the same thing in a particular namespace. You can have a production, staging and development namespace.
You need RBAC per namespace.
Installing Rancher Single-node#
- Install docker on the server
- Find the latest stable release
docker run -d –restart=unless-stopped -p 80:80 -p 443:443 -v /opt/rancher:/var/lib/rancher rancher/rancher:v2.3.2
Then add a node locally