A Brief Timeline of World History
A Brief Timeline of World History#
- 3300 BC to 1200 BC: Bronze Age
- 560 - 1065: Dark Ages
- 1067 : Early Medieval
- 2,000,000 BC: Human life began in Africa - first stone tools (Olduvai Stone Chopping Tool - Tanzania). All of us descend from those African ancestors.
- 1,400,000 BC: Olduvai Hand Axe - signs of speech and move upward from Africa.
- 500,000 BC: Spread to the middle east
- 40,000 BC: Last Ice Age. Sea level fell - exposing Bering Land Bridge between Siberia and Alaska.
- 15,000 - 5,000 BC: Joman Pot (Japan) First bucket - made of hardened clay
- 12,000 BC: Ice/Land Bridge melted.
- 11,000 BC: Sculpture carved from a Mammoth’s tusk - Franca
- 11,000 BC: Clovis spear point - Arizona USA
- 10,000 BC: Last Mammoth finished off - plants were chosen by humans.
9000 - 3500 BC: Farming - humans settle.
As the human species expanded across the globe, we had to compete with other animals going for the easy food. Where we couldn’t compete, we had to go for the difficult food. We went for things like the small hard grass seeds we call cereals, which are indigestible if eaten raw and may even be poisonous, which we have to pulp up and turn into things like bread and dough.
4000 - 2000 BC: First cities (Iraq, egypt, pakistan and Indeia)
- 3500 BC: Sculpture of Cattle: Milk and meat…farming.
- 3000 BC (or 2100 BC): Sumeria - earliest known civilisation in Mesopotamia. First socialist state - rations doled out by government who owned farms.
- 2000 BC: Mayans - Mexico and Guatemala
- 1550 BC: Rhind Mathematical Papers - mathematical problems on papyrus Egypt
- 1894 BC (or 1750 BC): Babylonia - fixed wages set for physicians, artisan and herdsman (communist).
- 800 – 400 BC: Sythians - horse and archery (Eurasion Steppe)
- 650 BC: Lydian Gold Coin - Ancient Greeks - first coin made of hold and silver
- 631 – 609 BC: Fall of Assyria
- 550 BC: Gold Coin of Croesus - Western Turkey - Lydia
- 522 BC: Darius the Great - third persian king of kings
- 500 BC: Buddha
- 490 BC: Leonidas (530-480 BC)- Spartan king
- 490 BC: The battle of marathon - first persian invasion of Greece
- 480 BC: Greeks and Persian wars: Battle of Thermopylae (Lost cause), Battle of Salamis - Peloponnesian War
- 399 BC: Socrates Dies
- 340 BC: Alexander the great (356 BC - 323 BC)
- 268 - 232 BC: Ashoka the Great (ruler of India)
- 264 - 146 BC: Punich wars
- 240 BC: Mummy of Hornedjitef, Egypt. During the reign of Ptolemy III.
- 200BC: Eratostinese of Alexandra discovers the circumference of the Earth
- 196 BC: Rossetta Stone. Egypt.
- 183 BC: Hannibal - Carthage general fought Romans
- 70 BC: Masada roman storm Jews (Lost cause)
- 59 BC: Julius Caesar rewards romans that beared many children
- 46 BC: Vercingetorix - Gauls to take on Romans
- 30 BC: Egypt brought under Roman rule by Octavius
- 23 BC: Sargon of akkad - sumeria - first ruler of an Empire
- 90: Epictetus (Born 50 A.D)
- 180: Death of Marcus Aurelius - Breakdown of Roman Democracy: Gracci, Marius, Caesar - Augustus organised a Monarchy (pax Romana). Disgraced after him by Caligula, Nero and Domitian. Then improved through Nerva, Trajan, Haidrian, Antoninus Pius to Marcus Aurelius - a great time in Rome. Emperor transitted authority not to offspring but to most able man (who he adopted and trained). Marcus failed to name anyone - * therefore his son Commodus messed up.
- 301: Diocletian introduced communism in Rome (and war economy) - taxes rose huge and Rome started serfdom.
- 370 - 469: the Huns - central asian nomads - king Attila (Eurasian steppe)
- 465: Rome succumbs to Barbarians
- 550 - 700: Angles and Saxons invade England (after romans leave in 410)
- 600: Sutton Hoo Helmey - Anglo-saxon helmet found Suffolk, England. Acid in soil dissolved the body and leather. Excavated in 1939.
- 732: Defeat of the Moslems at Tours (Charles Martel) - kept France and spain from adopting the Koran
- 768 - 814: Reign of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) uniter of Western Europe
- 1066: Battle of Hastings - Normans vs Anglo-saxons - the end of Scandanavian dominance in England
- 1077: Henry IV recognized this claim by submitting to Pope Gregory VII at Canossa
- 1095 - 1291: Crusades - religious wars during medieval period
- 1200 - 1299: Gun spread to europe
- 1200: Ghengis Khan (1158 - 1227)
- 1210: Origin of Incan Empire (longest lasting socialist reign), every person an employee of the state
- 1300 - 1521: Aztec Empire
- 1300 - 1400: Mongol Empire (Eurasian Steppe) descendents of Ghengis Khan
- 1347: Black death, Bubonic Plague - originated in China and arrived in Europe with ships - 200 million * estimated deaths
- 1375: Ming Paper Money - China.
- 1381: Peasants revolt in Great Britain (from black death lack of workers) - then bigger problems from black death arose
- 1492: Columbus and Vasco Da Gama Voyages
- 1500: Nicolaus Copernicus placed Sun at centre of universe (not earth)
- 1588: Spanish Armada - ship battle spanish and portguese vs dutch and English
- 1618 - 1648: Thirty Years’ War - Holy Roman Empire and Germany
- 1620: Rene Descartes (1596—1650) philosopher
- 1642 - 1651: English Civil War (Parliamentarians (“Roundheads”) and Royalists (“Cavaliers”)) Oliver * Cromwell became Lord Protectorate
- 1652 - Jan van riebeeck finds Cape Town
- 1759: pen name Voltaire (1694 - 1778) real name François-Marie Arouet - freedom writer
- 1759: British National History Museum Opens
- 1775 - 1783: American Revolutionary War - Americans vs British
- 1800: Karl Marx and Freidrich Engel
- The places adopting communism were more backward industrally - more peasant - russia, china, korea and cuba
- 1800: Tecumseh - Red Indian trying to unite the tribes
- 1801: Thomas Jefferson (1743 - 1826) - 3rd US president made president by farmers - a government that * govered least
- 1803 - 1815: Napolionic wars
- 1815: Napoleon exiled to Saint Helena 10 December, died there 1821
- 1816 – 1828: Shaka Zulu (1787 – 1828) Reigns
- 1836: Alamo - Davey crocket died holding off Mexico Army (Lost cause)
- 1844: Morse code first used (telegraph) - Samuel Morse
- 1848: Failed Revoltions (Springtime of the Peoples) - remove monarchy and create independent nation states
- 1870: Franco-Prussian War
- 1871: Germany unifies
- 1877: Louis Pasteur (French man) develops vaccines for smallpox and cholera
- 1903: Wright brothers flight
- 1913: Woodrow wilson - 28th presisdent of US
- 1914 (August): Battle of the Frontiers: Germans vs French and Belgium (1 month)
- 1914 - 1918: WW1 - World War I.
- Started looking like napolionic wars cavalry with shiny breatplate, spiked helmet and turned up moustaches - came back modern soliders.
- Britain wiped out as most affluent nation.
- Ottoman empire broken apart - Saudi Arabia formed as fought with British.
- WW1 nations unprepared for war - didn’t know what they were getting into.
- Became a defensive war - war in west became a trench war.
- Tank - to overcome trench defence.
- WW2 was a continuation of WW1.
- Submarines are the reason USA got involved - sinking ships with personnel on.
- 1917: Bulshaviks toppled russian Tsar - Lenin.
- 1918: Spanish flu apparently killed 100 million people
- 1919: Treaty of Versailles
- War guilt clause
- a reason era of Nazism was fought.
- Leaders were footsoldiers in the WW1. Churchill was in the trenches a while.
- France surrended
- They used the exact * railway car…same place treaty of 1940.
- Then blew up railway car.
- 1920: League of nations: New language esperanto facilitate co-operation and trade. Idealistic intellectuals.
- Economic sanctions proved ineffective (ceased operations 1946)
- 1923: November - German Mark dies after hyper inflation
- 1929: October stock market crash (Great Depression) until second world war brought countries out
- 1931: Japan invades manchuria
- 1933: Reichstag fire, 27 February, 4 weeks after Adolfwas sworn in. Fire of the German parliament. A false flag operation - doing something to advance your objectives by pinning the blame on another. Amendments to the constituition paving way for Nazi dictatorship.
- 1935: Italy invades abbysynia (Ethiopia)
- 1940 - 1945: Winston Churchill (1874 – 1965) - Behind Iron curtain.
- 1945: The Yalta conference - Frankin D roosevelt old and Truman coming in - didn’t know about the atom bomb.
- Churchill hatred of communism.
- 1947 cold war - red army soviet union Joseph Stalin - original bulshaviks dismantling russian regime.
- 1949 - 1976: Mao Zedong founder of PRC (people’s republic of China)
- 1950: North Korea invades South Korea
The Lessons of History#
The influence of geographic factors diminishes as technology grows.
- The first biological lesson of history is that life is competition
- The second biological lesson of history is that life is selection
- The third biological lesson of history is that life must breed
Nature has no use for organisms, variations, or groups that cannot reproduce abundantly
Ideally parentage should be a privilege of health, not a by-product of sexual agitation.
Freedom and inequality are the realities.
Utopias of equality are biologically doomed
Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes, and Normans fused to produce Englishmen
Means and instrumentalities change; motives and ends remain the same: to act or rest, to acquire or give, to fight or retreat, to seek association or privacy, to mate or reject, to offer or resent parental care.
A youth boiling with hormones will wonder why he should not give full freedom to his sexual desires; and if he is unchecked by custom, morals, or laws, he may ruin his life before he matures sufficiently to understand that sex is a river of fire that must be banked and cooled by a hundred restraints if it is not to consume in chaos both the individual and the group
During agricultural time period: So he married early, almost as soon as nature wished; he did not fret long under the restraints placed upon premarital relations by the new order of permanent settlements and homes. As for young women, chastity was indispensable, for its loss might bring unprotected motherhood.
Industrial revolution: Men, women, and children left home and family, authority and unity, to work as individuals, individually paid, in factories built to house not men but machines.
when religion declines Communism grows
Then the replacement of agriculture—which had stirred men to faith by the annual rebirth of life and the mystery of growth—with industry, humming daily a litany of machines, and suggesting a world machine.
Buddha created a religion without a god. When he died, people made him the god - opposing his teachings.
The men who can manage men manage the men who can manage only things, and the men who can manage money manage all
It is the minds of peasants and serfs that short sightedly longs for communism
Since men love freedom, and the freedom of individuals in society requires some regulation of conduct, the first condition of freedom is its limitation; make it absolute and it dies in chaos
Power naturally converges to a center, for it is ineffective when divided, diluted, and spread - expet for bitcoin power increases when spread
Since wealth is an order and procedure of production and exchange rather than an accumulation of (mostly perishable) goods, and is a trust (the “credit system”) in men and institutions rather than in the intrinsic value of paper money or checks, violent revolutions do not so much redistribute wealth as destroy it
The only real revolution is in the enlightenment of the mind and the improvement of character, the only real emancipation is individual, and the only real revolutionists are philosophers and saints
And while rural isolation enhanced the freedom of the individual, national isolation provided liberty and security within protective seas
Personal isolation is gone through the growth of cities. Personal independence is gone through the dependence of the worker upon tools and capital that he does not own, and upon conditions that he cannot control.
Education has spread, but intelligence is perpetually retarded by the fertility of the simple
The causes of war are the same as the causes of competition among individuals: acquisitiveness, pugnacity, and pride; the desire for food, land, materials, fuels, mastery.
The individual submits to restraints laid upon him by morals and laws, and agrees to replace combat with conference, because the state guarantees him basic protection in his life, property, and legal rights.
On one point all are agreed: civilizations begin, flourish, decline, and disappear—or linger on as stagnant pools left by once life-giving streams.
Life has no inherent claim to eternity, whether in individuals or in states. Death is natural, and if it comes in due time it is forgivable and useful, and the mature mind will take no offense from its coming
- The Lessons of History by Will Durant
- Hardcore History Podcast
- A History of the World in 100 Objects - MacGregor, Neil