Theming Magento 2 Customisation Tasks#

Theme Loho#

Must put in app/design/frontend/<vendor>/<theme>/web/images as logo.svg

It is then automatically recognised

Magento 2 and less#

Why?

  • Faster deveopment
  • Simpler customisation
  • Cleaner Structure
  • Selectors nesting
  • Use of variables
  • Extends
  • Operations

Compilation mode#

Server side: best for production Client side: During development and done in browser

_extend.less is easiest way to extend parent theme

web/css/source/_theme.less is override default magento ui library variables

Theme Css and LESS#

Module specific styles:

app/design/frontend/<vendor>/<theme>/<Namespace>_<Module>/web/css

/web/css/:

  • print.less - printed versions
  • _styles.less - included file
  • styles-m.less - mobile specific styles
  • styles-l.less - Desktop specific styles
  • source/ - Mixins and overrides of Magento UI library

_<filename>.ext - usually mean file is included in other files

Adding LESS#

In app/design/frontend/Magento/blank/Magento_Theme/layout/default_head_blocks.xml:

<head>
  <css src="css/style-m.css">
</head>

Less directives#

@magento_import

Magento UI Librarry#

  • Built on LESS
  • Foxuesed on web standards
  • Customisable
  • Easy to maintain
  • Responsive
  • Accessible

Readme for mixins: /libs/web/css/docs/src/readme.md

Mixin description: /lib/web/css/docs

HTML view: pubs/static/frontend/magento/blank/en_US/css/docs/index.html

Can customise the following elements:

  • action-toolbar
  • breadcrumbs
  • buttons
  • components
  • drop-downs
  • forms
  • icons
  • layout
  • loaders
  • messages
  • pagination
  • grids
  • popups
  • ratings
  • resets
  • Responsive
  • sections: tabs and accordions
  • tables
  • tooltips
  • typography
  • utilities
  • list of theme variable

To override a Magento UI variable#

Specify the new variable value in:

app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/web/css/source/_theme.less

Note: It overrides that of parent theme, to inherit you must copy parent _theme.less content

Extending#

Best practises:

  • Use a new theme for customisation, don’t use existing Blank or Luma themes (Use parent mechanism)
  • Use grunt for processing
  • Reuse the UI library

To extend less files you add _extend.less

Eg. To extend Magento_Catalog add:

/app/design/frontend/Vendor/themename/Magento_Catalog/web/css/source/_extend.less

Compiling / Processing#

Three ways to compile LESS:

  • Server-side compilation with PHP
  • Client-side compilation with JS
  • Local compilation with Grunt

To change: Admin -> Stores -> Configuration -> Advanced -> Developer -> Front-end Dev Workflow

Server side compilation#

Production mode. Slow, global recompile, need to delete static files before each run.

Client side compilation#

Cons: Annoying blinking before styles compile. Pros: No additional setup, Fast.

Local compilation#

Advanced mode Cons: requires initial setup of local env Pros: Fast, recompiles only local changes, easy to debug, can be automated

Local Compilation Setup#

Copy package.json.sample to package.json

Copy Gruntfile.js.sample to Gruntfile.js

  1. Install node.js
  2. Install grunt: npm install -g grunt-cli
  3. Install npm packages: npm install
  4. Register your theme in: dev/tools/grunt/configs/theme.js

Useful grunt commands#

  • grunt refresh - Cleans static files and compiles all theme styles
  • grunt clean - Cleans static files (pub and var)
  • grunt less - Compiles LESS to CSS
  • grunt watch - Start watching changes, compiles on save
  • grunt exec <theme> - Republishes symlinks to locale directory

Add theme to Grunt config example styles debugging