Data Science Basics

Moving data from its raw form into a consumable form

Preparing the data into data samples, then making charts and reports


  1. Ask the right questions
  2. Frame thw question to define what needs measuring
  3. Select the appropriate data for measurement and cleaning up
  4. Find the patterns to extract key points

Better to select data after you have defined what you are looking to measure, to avoid over collecting or under collecting. Also depends if you want a ballpark figure or very accurate info.

  • Data must contain a representative sample of all factors you are looking for
  • decide whether:
    • quantities data - numeric
    • qualitative data - descriptions, smells, quality
  • Decided between primary and secondary source

Sampling Methods

  • Simple Random Sampling - numbers in a hat (whole population equal chance)
  • Stratified Sampling - population grouped by characterists (eg. Age) one person per group
  • Cluster Sampling - groups based on characteristic
  • Systematic sampling


    pip install matplotlib
    pip install numpy


Numeric Python extensions built in 2005, to increase speed and flexibility in working with larger datasets

Built in list functions

  • sort(<list>) - sort items of a list in-place
  • reverse(<list>) - reverse elements in-place
  • list.count(x) - counts number of times x appears in list
  • list.append(x) - add item to end of list


Only showing records that satisfy a specified condition


Seperating rows with common attributes into groups

Using Excel

Sometimes forced to use excel

    pip install openpyxl


  • Line charts - known as plots

Creating a line chart

    from excel import *

    import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

    def create_line_chart(data_sample, title, exported_figure_filename):
        fig = plt.figure()
        ax = fig.add_subplot(1, 1, 1)

        prices = (sorted(map(float, data_sample)))

        x_axis_ticks = list(range(len(data_sample)))
        ax.plot(x_axis_ticks, prices, linewidth=2)
        ax.set_xlim([0, len(data_sample)])
        ax.set_ylabel('Tie Price ($)')
        ax.set_xlabel('Number of Ties')


    create_line_chart([x[2] for x in gucci_ties[1:]], "Distribution of prices for gucci ties", 'data/line-chart.png')


End goal of data analysis is to share your findings

Creating PDF

  1. Import PdfPages module
  2. Create a new object of PdfPages with a filename
  3. Save figure(s)
  4. Close the object


    from matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf import PdfPages
    pp = PdfPages('foo.pdf')


Check the docs on: