PostGres - Up and Running
A few notes I took from the excellent book” PostgreSQL: Up and Running, Third Edition by Regina Obe and Leo Hsu”
PostgreSQL is a relational detabase management system. It is not just a database it is also an application platform.
It is fast.
Prepackaged languages for stored procedures and functions:
It has a larger set of datatypes than most and allows definition on custom data types.
It bridges between the relational world and the object world. If you create a dog table with creed, colour, size;
postgres will maintain a dog datatype for you.
With a robust database, everything else is eye candy
PostgreSQL is fundementallly relational, there are non-relational facilities:
hstorefor key value pairs
jsonbfor documents (we’ve already learnt that jsonb is preferential in most cases)
It has been around for 20 years (from changing to PostgreSQL from Postgres95), the code base started in 1986.
Why Not PostGresSQL
It is large (more than 100mb) so rule out use on small devices and for small cache stores.
Security managed at applcation level doesn’t need postgres’ role and permissions, a single user database such as
firebird may be better suited.
It can be combined with other db types like
memchache to cache query results. Or woith sqlite for the offline db.
Install from Postgres core Distribution
On Ubuntu you can intall with:
sudo apt install postgresql postgresql-contrib
Log into psql:
sudo -u postgres psql
From command prompt create a user:
sudo -u postgres createuser --interactive
Create a database:
This will only install postgres 9.5
Installing Latest on Ubuntu
Follow the steps in Installing postgres on ubuntu core
The installer will tell you to login as
postgres and run:
/usr/lib/postgresql/10/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/lib/postgresql/10/main -l logfile start
but it didn’t work for me so I just started it with:
sudo service postgres start
Wierdly it started the previous install I had of postgres:
postgres=# select version(); version ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PostgreSQL 9.5.13 on x86_64-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by gcc (Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.9) 5.4.0 20160609, 64-bit (1 row)
I had to purge the old one with:
sudo apt purge postgresql-9.5
then install with:
sudo apt install postgresql-10 postgresql-client-10
select version(); inside
psql to check the version.
- psql - postgreSQL’s command line interface that comes with the core distribution
- pgAdmin - a popular, free GUI tool for Postgres. It is the
postgresversion of MySQLWorkbench. Although I have found MySQL workbench superior to use. That being said administration and monitoring can be done on pgAdmin as it is open source. pgAdmin does not have a desktop app is is used through a browser.
- phpPgAdmin - Postgres version of PHPMyAdmin. Don;t use this thing it is shit.
- Adminer - Useful if you are manging postgres and other databases together. A lightweight PHP application. It has a nice relational diagrammer (which makes up for PgAdmin’s lack of one). It is a lowest common denominator package.
Postgres Databse Objects
Postgres has more database objects than most other systems. You will probably never touch most of these objects.
- Database - Each postgres service houses many databases
- Schema - Next level organisation within each database. When you create a new database, postgres automatically creates a schema called
publicwhich is fine if you have a few tables. YThousands of tables should be split into schemas.
- Table - Tables are first citizens of schemas. They are inheritable which saves time in db creation and querying. Postgres creates an accompanying custom data type for each table.
- View - Views are offered by most db’s and offer a level of abstraction from tables. You can do caluclations, derive columns, hide columns. Generally they are read-only but can be updated in postgres even with derived columns with a trigger.
Allow developers to package, functions, data types, casts, custom index types, tables, attribute variables.
Only enable extensions you need. Also create a seperate schema for them to reside in like
search_path variable of the database so you can refer to the function without having to prepend the schema name
Some extensions rely on other extensions, with
9.6 dependent extensions will be installed when required when using
CREATE EXTENSION postgis_tiger_geocoder CASCADE;
Functions can be created for data manipulation, complex calculations. Other databases refer to functions that manipulate data as stored procdeures. Postgres does not make that distinction.
You can create functions using a
PL a procedural language.
There are 3 by default:
SQL, PL/pgSQL, and C
You can add more from framework or with
CREATE PRODCEDURAL LANGUAGE
Symbolically names aliases:
&&. You can create your own.
Foreign Tables and Foreign Data Wrappers
Foreign tbles are virtual tables linked to data outside of postgres. They could be a CSV file or another external db, a webservice or redis that can be queries like another table.
Foreign Data Wrappers (FDW’s) handle the mapping and handschake between the services.
Triggers and Trigger Functions
Triggers detect and run on data change events. Trigger functions have access to info before and after a trigger event for complex validation and reversal. In
9.4 you can create triggers for foreign tables.
Catalogs are system schemas that store Postgres built-in functions and metadata. Every database contains:
pg_catalog- holds tables, functions, system views from PostGres
information_schema- Metadata for exposing ANSI SQL standard
Settings to configure the db are stored within the db. Although best not to mess with variables in
You will find
information_schema in MySQL as well and it lists:
views giving info about the structure of tables.
Full Text Search
FTS, Full text search, is a natural language based search. It can search based on semantics (the meaning behind the words) not just on syntactical (structural) make up.
Eg. Searching for
runnning may return: run, runner, running, sprint, dash
Prescribe how to convert one data type to another.
Gives control of an autoincrement serial class
Instructions to rewrite SQL before execution which have fallen out of favour to triggers.
- PHP -
- Java -
- .net -
- Microsoft Office -
Postgres ODBC drivers
- Python -
- Ruby -
Basic Administration: managing roles and permissions, creating databases, installing extensions, backing up and restoring data.
postgresql.conf- General settings: memory allocation, defautl sotrage locations, ip addresses, posts, location of logs.
pg_hba.conf- Controls access to server, indicating which users and ip’s can login and connect.
pg_ident.conf- Maps authenticated OS login to a postgres user. Some may a server’s
Postgres refers to
roles. Not all
rolesneed to have login privileges (group roles)
Finding tho location of configuration files:
SELECT name, setting FROM pg_settings WHERE category = 'File Locations';
Some config changes require restarting the service and closing existing connections. Other changes just require a reload. Look under the context setting associated with a configuration:
pg_ctl, in a console:
pg_ctl reload -D your_data_directory_here
Installed as a service:
service postgresql-9.5 reload
Via a query:
pg_ctl, in a console:
pg_ctl restart -D your_data_directory_here
Installed as a service:
service postgresql-9.5 restart
Never edit it directly, rather make use of
postgresql.auto.conf which overrides settings in the
You can check settigs with:
SELECT name, context , unit , setting, boot_val, reset_val FROM pg_settings WHERE name IN ('listen_addresses','deadlock_timeout','shared_buffers', 'effective_cache_size','work_mem','maintenance_work_mem') ORDER BY context, name;
context shows the scope.
user context means a user can change settings in their session.
superuser sets it as default for all users.
user cannot override a
superuser set setting.
postmaster settings affect the entire server.
Settings can be set per role, database, session and funciton level.
Make sure to check the
unitof the setting.
Remember you can check the data type label display with
You can check settings from files:
SELECT name, sourcefile, sourceline, setting, applied FROM pg_file_settings WHERE name IN ('listen_addresses','deadlock_timeout','shared_buffers', 'effective_cache_size','work_mem','maintenance_work_mem') ORDER BY name;
Important settings that require a restart and may prevent clients from connecting:
listen_addresses- Tells PostgreSQL what IP address to listen on. This defualt to localhost. Most people change to
*for all ip’s.
port- Defaults to
max_connections- The max number of concurrent connections
log_destination- misnomer, it specifies the log format, reather than location.
Settings that affect performance:
shared_buffers- Amount of memory shared between all connections. This affects the speed of your queries. Generally this should be set to 25% of available RAM. After 8Gb there are diminishing returns.
effective_cache_size- An estimate postgres expects the OS to devote to it. Set this to half of avialable RAM for a dediated server.
work_mem- Controls max memory for each operation: sorting, hash join and table scans.
maintenance_work_mem- Memory allocated for house keeping activities (Nevr set more than 1Gb)
max_parallel_workers_per_gather- Parallelism which is off by default. If you have more than 1 core you will want to increase this. should be lower than
max_worker_processes- which defaults to 8.
It is better to use a query
ALTER SYSTEM instead of editing the files directly:
ALTER SYSTEM SET work_mem = '500MB';
Server not starting after editing file
If this happens check the log at the root of the data folder or in
Most common is a
shared_buffers set too high or an ols
postmaster.pid left from a failed shutdown which will need to be deleted.
Determines who can connect. Changes to this file require a reload.
The authentication method:
Remember users and devices still need to satisfy role and database access restrictions.
trust- least secure authentication. No password is needed as long as user is from the ip range.
md5- required an MD5 encrypted password to connect
password- uses clear text password authentication
pg_ident.confto check if local user is mapped to a postgres account.
peer- uses OS name of the user from the kernel.
cert- stipulate that connections use SSL.
The responsibility is on the client to stop queries from taking ver long to complete. Although queries can be cancelled or connections terminated.
All running queries should be stopped and connectins terminated before making backups and restoring backups.
Cancelling running queries and terminating connections
Retrieve a list of active connections:
SELECT * FROM pg_stat_activity;
Cancel active queries on a connection with PID 1234
Terminate the connection
This is especially important prior to a database restore. If you don’t terminate the connection, the client may immediately reconnect after restore and run the offending query anew.
pg_cancel_backend only work on one pid at a time, you can cancel all with the use of SQL:
SELECT pg_terminate_backend(pid) FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE usename = 'some_role';
You can set some defaults so the server automatically cancels or kills:
deadlock_timeout- how long a deadlocked query should wait before giving up
statement_timeout- time a query can run before it is forced to cancel. This default to 0 (ie. never timeout)
lock_timeout- time to wait on a lock before giving up. Default is 0.
idle_in_transaction_session_timeout- Amount of time a transaction can stay in idle before timing out.
Roles can belong to other roles (group roles).
Postgres creates a login role called
postgres. After installing postgres you should login as postgres and create another role. Either with PgAdmin or:
CREATE ROLE leo LOGIN PASSWORD 'king' VALID UNTIL 'infinity' CREATEDB;
VALID UNTIL is optional, defualts to infinity.
CREATEDB grants database creation privileges to the new role.
Creating a superuser:
CREATE ROLE regina LOGIN PASSWORD 'queen' VALID UNTIL '2020-1-1 00:00' SUPERUSER;
Creating a group role:
CREATE ROLE royalty INHERIT;
INHERIT means any member of royalty will inherit privileges of royalty role.
Adding members to a group role:
GRANT royalty TO leo;
View Postgres golbal variables::
SELECT session_user, current_user;
SET ROLEchanges the
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATIONchanges both the
CREATE DATABASE mydb;
a Template Databse is a skeleton for new databases. If you don’t specify a template
template1 is used.
Creating a database from a template:
CREATE DATABASE my_db TEMPLATE my_template_db;
You can also mark any database as a template database. Once you do, the database is no longer editable and deletable.
UPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate = TRUE WHERE datname = 'mydb';
If ever you need to edit or drop a template database, first set the datistemplate attribute to FALSE
Schemas organise your data into logical groups. If you have more than 24 tables in your database consider moving them out into schemas.
Another common way to organize schemas is by roles. We found this to be particularly handy with applications that serve multiple clients whose data must be kept separate.
Prepend the schema name onto the table in a query to tell postgres what schema to use:
SELECT * FROM customer1.dogs
Another method is to set the search_path variable to be something like
It will search the non-public schema first.
Finding the currently logged in user:
an alias for
So if customer schemas are named the same as their login roles you can do:
search_path = "$user", public;
Importantly all SQL queries remain the same.
Create new schemas per extension
CREATE SCHEMA my_extensions;
then add the new extension to the
ALTER DATABASE mydb SET search_path='$user', public, my_extensions;
- Requires a reconnect
Privileges or permissions are tricky to administer. It can even go to row and column level.
You can achieve most privilege audmin in
Most privileges have a context (a target acted upon), the only 2 with no context are
After installing postgres
Create a role that will ownt he db:
CREATE ROLE mydb_admin LOGIN PASSWORD 'something';
Create the database and set the owner:
CREATE DATABASE mydb WITH owner = mydb_admin;
Primary way to assign privileges:
GRANT some_privilege TO some_role;
Some privileges always remain with the owner of an object and can never be granted away. These include DROP and ALTER.
The owner of an object retains all privileges. Granting an owner privilege in what it already owns is unnecessary
Giving another role ability to give others the permission, use
GRANT ALL ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA public TO mydb_admin WITH GRANT OPTION;
To grant a privilege on all roles, use
GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA my_schema TO PUBLIC;
Unlike in other database products, being the owner of a PostgreSQL database does not give you access to all objects in the database. Another role could conceivably create a table in your database and deny you access to it! However, the privilege to drop the entire database could never be wrestled away from you.
After granting privileges to tables and functions with a schema, don’t forget to grant usage on the schema itself.
Backup and Restore
pg_dump- backup specific database
pg_dumpall- backup all databases (as superuser)
pg_basebackup- system level disk backups
If your db is >= 500Gb then you should use
pg_basebackup as part of your backup strategy - but that requires settings turned on for replication.
pg_dump can selectively back up tables, schemas, and databases
Create a compressed, single database backup
pg_dump -h localhost -p 5432 -U someuser -F c -b -v -f mydb.backup mydb
A plain text backup can be created with:
pg_dump -h localhost -p 5432 -U someuser -C -F p -b -v -f mydb.backup mydb
(Jeepuz, lots of options)
Create a dump of tables whose name starts with
pg_dump -h localhost -p 5432 -U someuser -F c -b -v -t *.pay* -f pay.backup mydb
A backup of all objects in the
pg_dump -h localhost -p 5432 -U someuser -F c -b -v \ -n hr -n payroll -f hr.backup mydb
Create a compressed backup of all objects in all schemas including public:
pg_dump -h localhost -p 5432 -U someuser -F c -b -v -N public \ -f all_sch_except_pub.backup mydb
To crate the backup as a directory and getting around file size limitations:
pg_dump -h localhost -p 5432 -U someuser -F d -f /somepath/a_directory mydb
System wide backup
A server wide backup using
pg_dumpall puts everything into a plain text file, including server globals.
It is recommended to prefer inidividual backups though as restoring from a huge text file can be slow.
pg_basebackup is the fastest option when restoring from a major issue.
To backup all globals and tablespace definitions:
pg_dumpall -h localhost -U postgres --port=5432 -f myglobals.sql --globals-only
Backing up specific global settings:
pg_dumpall -h localhost -U postgres --port=5432 -f myroles.sql --roles-only
pg_restorefor compressed, tar and directory backups
Restore a backup and ignore errors:
psql -U postgres -f myglobals.sql
Restore, stopping when error found:
psql -U postgres --set ON_ERROR_STOP=on -f myglobals.sql
Restore a specific database:
psql -U postgres -d mydb -f select_objects.sql
- You can perform parrallel restores with
--jobs=3. Restoring a table per thread.
- You can review what is being restored before starting
- You can sleectively restore: table or schema
First create the databsae anew:
CREATE DATABASE mydb;
pg_restore –dbname=mydb –jobs=4 –verbose mydb.backup
If the name of the db is the same as the backup, you can do the above in one step:
pg_restore --dbname=postgres --create --jobs=4 --verbose mydb.backup
--create option, the database name is always the same as the one you backed up.
A restore will not recreate objects, so you need to use the
To restore just the structure with no data:
pg_restore --dbname=mydb2 --section=pre-data --jobs=4 mydb.backup
Postgres uses table spaces to map logical names ot physical locations on disk.
pg_default (user data) and
pg_global (system data)
Creating a tablespace:
For unix, firt create the folder and
fstab location, then:
CREATE TABLESPACE secondary LOCATION '/usr/data/pgdata94_secondary';
Moving objects to another tablesapce:
ALTER DATABASE mydb SET TABLESPACE secondary;
To move a single table:
ALTER TABLE mytable SET TABLESPACE secondary;
To move all objects from defualt to secondary (db will be locaked):
ALTER TABLESPACE pg_default MOVE ALL TO secondary;
Important SysAdmin Points
- Always check the logs when something goes wrong
- You can clear your
pg_logfolder (not any others,
pg_clogare very important - renamed in postgres 10 to stop people thinking they were log files)
- Don’t grant full OS permissions to the
postgresaccount - opens up chance of SQL injection
- Don’t set
- Dont try to start postgres on a port already in use - you will get an error saying it is already running.
You can download pgAdmin
- Server and desktop mode (as a web server)
- Graphical explain for queries
- SQl Pane
- GUI editor for
- Data export and import - CSV, Html
- Backup and restore wizard
- Grant wizard - privileges
pgScriptengine - for db scripts without transactions
- SQL intellisense (
ctrl + space)
pgAgent- job scheduling s ### Navigating pgAdmin
Don’t panic, there are alot of things here (many of these won’t matter for a while).
You can declutter this by going:
Files -> Preferences -> Browser -> Nodes
Editing server files
You need the
adminpack extension installed:
CREATE EXTENSION adminpack;