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The Art of Postgresql

The Art of Postgresql#

Postgresql is not about storage, it is about concurrency and isloation.

RDBMS - Relational database management systems - provide ACID gaurantees.

A - Atomic#

  • Many actions in a transaction can use a rollback to return to the original state
  • If the systems runs out of storage, tranasctions will all rollback
  • Transactions for DDL’s (Data Description Language) - adding columns or index - if filesystem fills before end of script.

C - Consistenency#

  • Scheme, data types, constraints, relations
  • postgres will error out when trying to do things inconsistent with the schema

Relations are the central concept of SQL. Relations is a mathemtaical concept - sets that share common properties - attribute domains.

I - Isolation#

  • While you do select read queries, while other operations and transactions are happeneing.
  • Using pg_dump while other people are doing changes - so it typically uses an isolation mode. This is called repeatable read isolation. The default is read commited. More on postgres isolation.
  • Isolation is hard to implement at the application level

D - Durable#

  • Write a client to do inserts, check the commits on the client. Then check commits on server. Pull the plug out of the system intermittently. If there is a mismatch in counts of commits - then there is no durability.

PostgreSQL for Developers#

  • Transactions - means compliance with ACID
  • SQL
  • Object oriented
  • Extensions
  • Rich Data types
  • Data processing
  • Advanced Indexing
  • Arrays, XML and JSON

Some systems are calling themselves databases - NoSQL systems, but they are not databases. They are not ACID compliant.

How do you know what postgresql is doing?#


The favourite version from the author is explain (analyse, verbose, buffers):

  • The most information
  • analyse will run the query