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How does a Subscriber's Internet travel from Service Provider Perspective

How does a Subscriber’s Internet travel from Service Provider Perspective#

As with everything it depends on the solution provided - Fibre, Adsl and Wireless technology like 3g, 4g and LTE

Looking from a Fibre perspective the flow is:

ONT (GPON or PON) -> OLT -> ENNI -> BNG (mediating with RADIUS) -> PACKET INTROSPECTION - P ROUTER - PEERING/IP TRANSIT

Infrastrucutre providers - segments traffic into vlans - radius credentials - send variables attached to the username

BNG - mediates between ENNI and Radius to provide service

ONT tags all traffic from certain address

ip address allocated out of radius

sandvine enforces the cap

Can split radius servers into different environments - on every authentication attempt BNG tells radius the amount of data users - sandvine dynamic ip is just done with ease

Underlying fiber provider - .1q tunnel means it all goes (service vlan id)

So let us go through what the above are:

  • ONT (Optical Network Terminal) - device at subscriber’s home that converts optical signals into electrical signals
  • OLT (Optical Line Terminal) - convert, frame, and transmit signals for the PON network and to coordinate the optical network terminals multiplexing for the shared upstream transmission
  • ENNI (External Network-to-Network Interface) - The boundary between 2 operators. Layer 2 Vlan is handed off.
  • Radius - Speaks to the BNG to authenticate subscribers
  • BNG (Broadband Network Gateway) - the access point for customers to connect to the broadband network
  • PACKET INTROSPECTION - Inspects all traffic and stores amount of traffic used for subscribers
  • P ROUTER (Provider Router) - Provide reachability between Provider Edge devices
  • PEERING / IP TRANSIT - IP transit is when one entity pays another for the right to transit its upstream network (One entity is higher than the other on the chain). IP peering is a mutual exchange of data between two ISPs.

Sources#